Retina. 2023 Jul 1;43(7):1174-1181. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003794.


Purpose: To assess genetic associations for pentosan polysufate sodium maculopathy.

Methods: Genetic testing for inherited retinal dystrophy genes using exome testing and for 14 age-related macular degeneration-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using panel testing were performed. In addition, full-field electroretinograms (ffERG) were obtained to identify any cone-rod dystrophy.

Results: Eleven of 15 patients were women, with a mean age of 69 (range 46-85). Inherited retinal dystrophy exome testing in five patients revealed six pathogenic variants, but failed to confirm inherited retinal dystrophy in any patient genetically. FfERG performed in 12 patients demonstrated only nonspecific a- and b-wave abnormalities in 11 cases and was normal in one case. For age-related macular degeneration single nucleotide polymorphisms, CFH rs3766405 ( P = 0.003) and CETP ( P = 0.027) were found to be statistically significantly associated with pentosan polysulfate maculopathy phenotype compared with the control population.

Conclusion: Pentosan polysulfate maculopathy is not associated with Mendelian inherited retinal dystrophy genes. However, several age-related macular degeneration risk alleles were identified to be associated with maculopathy compared with their frequency in the normal population. This suggests a role for genes in disease pathology, particularly the alternative complement pathway. These findings would benefit from further investigation to understand the risk of developing maculopathy in taking pentosan polysulfate.

MeSH terms

  • Cone-Rod Dystrophies*
  • Cystitis, Interstitial*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration* / chemically induced
  • Macular Degeneration* / diagnosis
  • Macular Degeneration* / genetics
  • Male
  • Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester / adverse effects
  • Retinal Dystrophies*


  • Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester