A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence and Outcomes of Cardiac Metastasis of Neuroendocrine Malignancies

Am J Cardiol. 2023 May 1:194:86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2023.02.011. Epub 2023 Mar 29.


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare group of malignancies which are aggressive and widely metastatic. Cardiac metastases (CMs) are rarely reported because of NET. We aim to analyze the available literature to study the proportional prevalence of CM because of NET and its location and effect on the ejection fraction (EF) and survival rate. Our search strategy and meta-analysis are in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the methodological quality of systematic Reviews-2) Guidelines. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (EMBASE and PubMed) for randomized clinical trials, pilot trials, and retrospective and prospective studies. Statistical analysis was performed using the CRAN-R software (https://CRAN.R-project.org/doc/FAQ/R-FAQ.html). The quality assessment of the included articles was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A total of 16,685 patients were included in the study. The mean age of patients included in the study was 61.28 ± SD 9.89 years. Of these, 257 patients had a total of 283 CM. Metastasis was mainly located in the left ventricle with a pooled proportion of 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 0.56, pericardium: 0.34, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53, right ventricle 0.28, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.44, interventricular septum 0.25, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.37, left atrium 0.1, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.26 and right atrium 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.20. Decrease in EF at the time of CM diagnosis was the effect most consistently reported in patients with CM. Pooled mean survival was 35.89, 95% CI 8.27 to 155.68 months after the diagnosis of CM. CM due to NET was <2% and the left ventricle is the most common metastatic location, followed by the pericardium. Decreased EF was the most common clinical picture observed. Further studies are needed to analyze the clinical impact of NET CM.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Melanoma*
  • Melanoma, Cutaneous Malignant
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies