Organelles whose functions change as a result of molecular processes are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of coronary artery disease, in addition to molecular processes. Recently, the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease has attracted the attention of researchers. Mitochondria is a cell organelle with its own genome that plays a regulatory role in aerobic respiration, energy production, and cell metabolism. The number of mitochondria in cells changes dynamically, and there are di���erent numbers of mitochondria in every tissue and every cell, depending on their function and energy needs. Oxidative stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction by leading to alterations in the mitochondrial genome and mitochondrial biogenesis. The dysfunctional mitochondria population in the cardiovascular system is closely related to the coronary artery disease process and cell death mechanisms. It is thought that the altered mitochondria (dys)function accompanying the molecular changes in the atherosclerosis process will be among the new therapeutic targets of coronary artery disease in the near future.