Targeting protein tyrosine phosphatases for CDK6-induced immunotherapy resistance

Cell Rep. 2023 Apr 25;42(4):112314. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112314. Epub 2023 Mar 30.


Elucidating the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy and developing strategies to improve its efficacy are challenging goals. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrates that high CDK6 expression in melanoma is associated with poor progression-free survival of patients receiving single-agent immunotherapy. Depletion of CDK6 or cyclin D3 (but not of CDK4, cyclin D1, or D2) in cells of the tumor microenvironment inhibits tumor growth. CDK6 depletion reshapes the tumor immune microenvironment, and the host anti-tumor effect depends on cyclin D3/CDK6-expressing CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. This occurs by CDK6 phosphorylating and increasing the activities of PTP1B and T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which, in turn, decreases tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3ζ, reducing the signal transduction for T cell activation. Administration of a PTP1B and TCPTP inhibitor prove more efficacious than using a CDK6 degrader in enhancing T cell-mediated immunotherapy. Targeting protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) might be an effective strategy for cancer patients who resist immunotherapy treatment.

Keywords: CD3ζ; CDK6; CP: Cancer; CP: Immunology; PTP1B; TCPTP; cyclin D3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cyclin D3 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Neoplasms*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Microenvironment


  • Cyclin D3
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • CDK6 protein, human