Substantially elevated serum glutamate and CSF GOT-1 levels associated with cerebral ischemia and poor neurological outcomes in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

Sci Rep. 2023 Mar 31;13(1):5246. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-32302-3.


Brain injury and cerebral vasospasm during the 14 days after the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are considered the leading causes of poor outcomes. The primary injury induces a cascade of events, including increased intracranial pressure, cerebral vasospasm and ischemia, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neuronal cell death. The objective of this study was to monitor the time course of glutamate, and associated enzymes, such as glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT1), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, shortly after SAH, and to assess their prognostic value. A total of 74 participants participated in this study: 45 participants with SAH and 29 controls. Serum and CSF were sampled up to 14 days after SAH. SAH participants' clinical and neurological status were assessed at hospitalization, at discharge from the hospital, and 3 months after SAH. Furthermore, a logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the ability of GOT1 and glutamate levels to predict neurological outcomes. Our results demonstrated consistently elevated serum and CSF glutamate levels after SAH. Furthermore, serum glutamate level was significantly higher in patients with cerebral ischemia and poor neurological outcome. CSF GOT1 was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled intracranial hypertension and cerebral ischemia post-SAH, and independently predicted poor neurological outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Brain Ischemia* / complications
  • Cerebral Infarction / complications
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Hypertension* / complications
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Transaminases
  • Vasospasm, Intracranial* / etiology


  • Glutamic Acid
  • Transaminases