Neonatal Hypocalcemia: Common, Uncommon, and Rare Etiologies

Neoreviews. 2023 Apr 1;24(4):e217-e228. doi: 10.1542/neo.24-4-e217.


Calcium homeostasis in the neonatal period is a reflection of the transition from placental regulation to hormonal maturation in the newborn. Hypocalcemia occurring within the first 72 hours after birth, termed early-onset hypocalcemia (EOH), is more common and often asymptomatic. Hypocalcemia occurring beyond 72 hours of age is termed late-onset hypocalcemia (LOH). LOH is less common than EOH, and affected patients are more likely to be symptomatic. To prevent and treat hypocalcemia in the newborn, neonatal clinicians should be familiar with the common, uncommon, and rare etiologies of EOH and LOH, as summarized in this review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcium
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypocalcemia* / diagnosis
  • Hypocalcemia* / etiology
  • Hypocalcemia* / therapy
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Newborn, Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Infant, Newborn, Diseases* / therapy
  • Placenta
  • Pregnancy


  • Calcium