Update on the Epidemiology, Screening, and Management of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2023 Jun;37(2):267-288. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2023.02.007. Epub 2023 Mar 31.


Chlamydia trachomatis infection ("chlamydia") is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally, occurring in the genitals (urethra or vagina/cervix), rectum, or pharynx. If left untreated in women, genital chlamydia can ascend into the upper genital tract causing pelvic inflammatory disease, increasing their risk for ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. In men, chlamydia can cause epididymitis and proctitis. However, chlamydia is asymptomatic in over 80% of cases. This article provides an update on the epidemiology, natural history, and clinical manifestations of chlamydia in adults and discusses the current approaches to its management and control policy.

Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; Diagnosis; Epidemiology; Manifestations; Natural history; Screening; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Chlamydia Infections* / diagnosis
  • Chlamydia Infections* / drug therapy
  • Chlamydia Infections* / epidemiology
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease* / diagnosis
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease* / epidemiology
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease* / microbiology
  • Pregnancy