Symmetrical parapagus diprosopus tetrophthalmos in a bovine calf, with computed tomography imaging, and review of craniofacial duplications

J Vet Diagn Invest. 2023 May;35(3):227-235. doi: 10.1177/10406387231166130. Epub 2023 Apr 3.


Diprosopia, a congenital defect process also known as craniofacial duplication, is well-recognized in humans and has also been reported in numerous animal species. Here we describe a case of diprosopia in a live mixed-breed beef calf. We used computed tomography imaging to characterize internal and external abnormalities which, to our knowledge, have not been reported in any diprosopic veterinary species. Additional diagnostic tools included postmortem examination and histopathology. This case highlights distinct anatomic features associated with diprosopia and underscores the unique challenges associated with classifying and managing fetal malformations.

Keywords: bovine; computed tomography; congenital defect; craniofacial duplication; diprosopia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • Twins, Conjoined* / pathology