Clinical Impact and Predictors of Aneurysmal Rebleeding in Poor-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Results From the National POGASH Registry

Neurosurgery. 2023 Sep 1;93(3):636-645. doi: 10.1227/neu.0000000000002467. Epub 2023 Apr 3.


Background: Scarce data are available regarding rebleeding predictors in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

Objectives: To investigate predictors and clinical impact of rebleeding in a national multicentric poor-grade aSAH.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the multicentric Poor Grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Study Group (POGASH) registry of consecutive patients treated from January 1, 2015, to June 30th, 2021. Grading was defined as pretreatment World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grading scale IV-V. Ultra-early vasospasm (UEV) was defined as luminal narrowing of intracranial arteries not due to intrinsic disease. Rebleeding was defined as clinical deterioration with evidence of increased hemorrhage on subsequent computed tomography scans, fresh blood from the external ventricular drain, or deterioration before neuroradiological evaluation. Outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale.

Results: Among 443 consecutive World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades IV-V patients with aSAH treated within a median of 5 (IQR 4-9) hours since onset, rebleeding occurred in 78 (17.6%). UEV (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.8, 95% CI 3.2-14.4; P < .001) and presence of dissecting aneurysm (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.3; P = .011) independently predicted rebleeding while history of hypertension (adjusted OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8; P = .011) independently reduced its chances. 143 (32.3) patients died during hospitalization. Rebleeding emerged, among others, as an independent predictor of intrahospital mortality (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1; P = .009).

Conclusion: UEV and presence of dissecting aneurysms are the strongest predictors of aneurysmal rebleeding. Their presence should be carefully evaluated in the acute management of poor-grade aSAH.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Recurrence
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage* / complications
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage* / diagnostic imaging
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage* / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome