Impact of CYP2D6 Genotype on Paroxetine Serum Concentration

Ther Drug Monit. 2023 Oct 1;45(5):683-688. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0000000000001096. Epub 2023 Mar 30.


Background: Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6. Only small-scale studies have reported the impact of CYP2D6 genotype on paroxetine exposure, and international guidelines differ in their recommendations on whether paroxetine should be administered according to CYP2D6 genotype. To clarify this issue, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of CYP2D6 genotype on paroxetine serum concentration in a large population of patients after adjusting for CYP2C19 genotype, age, and sex.

Methods: Patients from a therapeutic drug monitoring database with records on their paroxetine serum concentrations and CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping between 2010 and 2021 were included in the study. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes, age, and sex on the paroxetine concentration-to-dose (C/D) ratio was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. Patients treated with relevant CYP inhibitors or inducers were excluded.

Results: In total, 304 patients were included in the study: 17 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs), 114 intermediate metabolizers (IMs), 168 extensive metabolizers (EMs), and 5 ultrarapid metabolizers. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that CYP2D6 IMs and PMs had 2.2-fold and 3.8-fold higher paroxetine C/D-ratios than extensive metabolizers, respectively ( P < 0.001). Patients who were CYP2C19 IMs (n = 70) or PMs (n = 13) had 1.6-fold higher paroxetine C/D ratio than extensive metabolizers ( P = 0.04). An age ≥65 years was associated with a 2.9-fold increased C/D ratio ( P < 0.001), whereas sex was not significantly associated with paroxetine exposure.

Conclusions: The present study showed that CYP2D6 genotype is of significant importance for paroxetine dose adjustments. For CYP2D6 PMs, 25% of the regular paroxetine starting dose may be sufficient, whereas CYP2D6 IMs could receive 50% of the regular dosage. This well-powered study shows that the guidelines should consider the importance of CYP2D6 genotype for personalized dosing of paroxetine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6* / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6* / metabolism
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Paroxetine* / pharmacology
  • Paroxetine* / therapeutic use
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use


  • Paroxetine
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors