Masked hypertension in a middle-aged population and its relation to manifestations of vascular disease

J Hypertens. 2023 Jul 1;41(7):1084-1091. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003431. Epub 2023 Apr 3.


Background: Masked hypertension is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous large studies have not used the same device to measure office and home blood pressure (BP) and adhered to current home BP measurement recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. We aimed to characterize masked hypertension and explore its relation to manifestations of CVD.

Methods: A randomly selected cohort of 5057 participants aged 50-64 years from the Swedish CardioPulmonary BioImage Study (SCAPIS) was evaluated with office and home BP using the semi-automatic Omron M10-IT oscillometric device. Additional analyses included pulse wave velocity (PWV) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS).

Results: Of participants, 4122 did not have current antihypertensive treatment, and were thus included in our analyses. Of these, 2634 (63.9%) had sustained normotension, and 172 (4.2%) had masked hypertension. Participants with masked hypertension vs. sustained normotension were more often men (66.9 vs. 46.2%, P < 0.001). Those with masked hypertension had higher mean PWV [9.3 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 9.1-9.5) vs. 8.3 (95% CI 8.2-8.4) m/s, P < 0.001] and odds ratio for CACS at least 100 [1.65 (95% CI 1.02-2.68), P = 0.040]. These associations were similar in a posthoc analysis of masked hypertension and sustained normotension, matched for age, sex and systolic office BP.

Conclusion: Masked hypertension was associated with markers of CVD. This suggests that home BP is a better predictor of risk, even when the recordings are performed with the same measurement device, in a population-based setting with randomized recruitment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypertension*
  • Male
  • Masked Hypertension*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pulse Wave Analysis
  • White Coat Hypertension* / epidemiology