SmoothT-a server constructing low-energy pathways from conformational ensembles for interactive visualization and enhanced sampling

Bioinformatics. 2023 Apr 3;39(4):btad176. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btad176.


Motivation: The SmoothT software and webservice offers the construction of pathways from an ensemble of conformations. The user provides an archive of molecule conformations in Protein Databank (PDB) format, from which a starting and a final conformation need to be selected. The individual PDB files need to contain an energy value or score, estimating the quality of the respective confirmation. Additionally, the user has to provide a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) cut-off, below which conformations are considered neighboring. From this, SmoothT constructs a graph that connects similar conformations.

Results: SmoothT returns the energetically most favorable pathway within in this graph. This pathway is directly displayed as interactive animation using the NGL viewer. Simultaneously, the energy along the pathway is plotted, highlighting the conformation that is currently displayed in the 3D window.

Availability and implementation: SmoothT is available as webservice at: Examples, a tutorial, and FAQs can be found there. Ensembles up to 2 GB (compressed) can be uploaded. Results will be stored for 5 days. The server is completely free and requires no registration. The C++ source code is available at:

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Computers*
  • Databases, Protein
  • Internet
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Protein Conformation
  • Proteins* / chemistry
  • Software


  • Proteins