It has been proposed that ingestion of large amounts of dietary protein leads to sustained renal hyperperfusion and progressive glomerulosclerosis in rats. This hypothesis was tested in dogs, with 75% reduction in renal mass, maintained for 4 years on either 56, 27, or 19% dietary protein. Twelve of 21 dogs survived 4 years, and death due to renal failure was not correlated to diet. Dogs fed 56 and 27% protein had increased GFR and CPAH before and after reduction of renal mass compared to the 19% group. A pattern of deterioration of renal function, including proteinuria, was not found in any diet group. Nine of 11 dogs, fed 56, 27, or 19% protein had minimal glomerular lesions, including mesangial proliferation, GBM irregularities, adhesions, and sclerosis. Two other dogs, fed 56% protein, had more severe glomerular lesions. No significant ultrastructural differences were found in glomeruli among the three diet groups. These results do not support the hypothesis that high protein feeding had a significant adverse effect on either renal function of morphology in dogs with 75% nephrectomy.