The past 5-10 years have brought in a new era in the care of patients with thyroid cancer, with the introduction of transformative diagnostic and management options. Several international ultrasound-based thyroid nodule risk stratification systems have been developed with the goal of reducing unnecessary biopsies. Less invasive alternatives to surgery for low-risk thyroid cancer, such as active surveillance and minimally invasive interventions, are being explored. New systemic therapies are now available for patients with advanced thyroid cancer. However, in the setting of these advances, disparities exist in the diagnosis and management of thyroid cancer. As new management options are becoming available for thyroid cancer, it is essential to support population-based studies and randomised clinical trials that will inform evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer, and to include diverse patient populations in research to better understand and subsequently address existing barriers to equitable thyroid cancer care.
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