Extrauterine Mesonephric-like Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Single Institution Study of 33 Cases

Am J Surg Pathol. 2023 Jun 1;47(6):635-648. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000002039. Epub 2023 Apr 6.

Abstract

Extrauterine mesonephric-like carcinoma (ExUMLC) shares histologic, immunohistochemical (IHC), and molecular (MOL) features with endometrial mesonephric-like carcinoma (EnMLC). Its rarity and histologic overlap with Mullerian carcinomas contribute to underrecognition of ExUMLC. Aggressive behavior of EnMLC is well-documented; behavior of ExUMLC is yet to be characterized. This study presents the clinicopathologic, IHC, and MOL features of 33 ExUMLC identified over a 20-year time period (2002-2022) and compares the behavior of this cohort to more common upper gynecologic Mullerian carcinomas (low-grade endometrioid, LGEC; clear cell, CCC; high-grade serous, HGSC) and EnMLC diagnosed over the same time period. ExUMLC patients ranged from 37 to 74 years old (median=59 y); 13 presented with advanced stage (FIGO III/IV) disease. Most ExUMLC had the characteristic mixture of architectural patterns and cytologic features, as previously described. Two ExUMLC had sarcomatous differentiation, 1 with heterologous rhabdomyosarcoma. Twenty-one ExUMLC (63%) had associated endometriosis, and 7 (21%) arose in a borderline tumor. In 14 (42%) cases, ExUMLC was part of a mixed carcinoma representing >50% of the tumor in 12. Twenty-six cases (79%) were incorrectly classified as follows: LGEC or HGEC (12); adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (3); HGSC (3); LGSC (2); mixed carcinoma (1); carcinosarcoma, Mullerian type (2); seromucinous carcinoma (1); transitional pattern of HGSC (1); and female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (1). Three patients had occult synchronous endometrial LGEC. IHC facilitated diagnosis in all cases with an expression of GATA-3 and/or TTF-1 in conjunction with decreased hormone receptor expression in most tumors. MOL testing (n=20) identified a variety of mutations, most frequently: KRAS (15); TP53 (4); SPOP (4); and PIK3CA (4). ExUMLC and CCC were more likely to be associated with endometriosis ( P <0.0001). ExUMLC and HGSC had more recurrences compared with CCC and LGEC ( P <0.0001). Histologic subtype was associated with longer disease-free survival for LGEC and CCC versus HGSC and ExUMLC ( P <0.001). ExUMLC trended towards a similar poor overall survival as HGSC compared with LGEC and CCC, and EnMLC trended to shorter survival compared with ExUMLC. Neither finding reached significance. No differences were seen between EnMLC and ExUMLC with respect to presenting stage or recurrence. Staging, histotype, and endometriosis were associated with disease-free survival, but on multivariate analysis, only stage remained as an independent predictor of outcome. The tendency of ExUMLC to present at an advanced stage and have distant recurrence points to more aggressive behavior compared with LGEC with which it is most frequently confused, underscoring the importance of an accurate diagnosis.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma*
  • Carcinoma, Endometrioid* / pathology
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • Endometriosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mesonephroma*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • Repressor Proteins

Substances

  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • SPOP protein, human