Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are reliant on insulin for survival. Despite enhanced knowledge related to the pathophysiology of the disease, including interactions between genetic, immune, and environmental contributions, and major strides in treatment and management, disease burden remains high. Studies aimed at blocking the immune attack on β cells in people at risk or individuals with very early onset type 1 diabetes show promise in preserving endogenous insulin production. This Seminar will review the field of type 1 diabetes, highlighting recent progress within the past 5 years, challenges to clinical care, and future directions in research, including strategies to prevent, manage, and cure the disease.
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