Background: While primary cardiac tumors are rare, it has been increasingly recognized due to improvement in screening measures. However, the hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes has been underrecognized compared to other cardiac tumors, such as cardiac myxomas and papillary fibroelastomas, and is still potentially associated with critical consequences such as sudden death. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence regarding the hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes and characterize the presentations and symptoms for clinicians.
Methods: Following the PRISMA statement, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for all peer-reviewed articles using keywords including "hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes" from their inception to January 2, 2023.
Results: We included 25 articles, including 34 cases, in this systematic review. Patients with hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes commonly presented with nonspecific symptoms such as dyspnea (35.3%), although a few presented with sudden death and syncope. The left ventricle was the common site of origin (41.2%), followed by the right atrium and ventricle. Surgery was commonly pursued for diagnosis and treatment, while a few required cardiac transplants (8.8%), and 29.4% were diagnosed with autopsy or expired.
Conclusion: Hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes is a potentially underrecognized primary cardiac tumor associated with treatable yet potentially critical consequences. Given the challenges of differentiating it from malignancy such as angiosarcoma, multimodal imaging needs to be utilized to pursue a diagnosis. Future studies are warranted to develop a noninvasive diagnosis mode for cardiac tumor.
Keywords: Hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes; Systematic review.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.