Intraoperative Transpyloric Tube Insertion for Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Analysis of Japanese Study Group Data

J Pediatr Surg. 2023 Sep;58(9):1663-1669. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2023.03.011. Epub 2023 Mar 18.

Abstract

Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital disease. Some CDH infants suffer from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), even after surgical correction of gastric position. A transpyloric tube (TPT) is inserted into CDH patients under direct observation intraoperatively in some hospitals in Japan to establish early enteral feeding. This strategy avoids gastric expansion to maintain a better respiratory condition. However, it is unclear whether the strategy has a secure effect for patient prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative TPT insertion on enteral feeding and postoperative weight gain.

Methods: The Japanese CDH Study Group database was used to identify infants with CDH born between 2011 and 2016, who were then divided into two groups: the TPT group and gastric tube (GT) group. In the TPT group, infants underwent intraoperative TPT insertion; postoperative insertion/extraction of TPT was irrelevant to the analysis. Weight growth velocity (WGV) was calculated using the exponential model. Subgroup analysis was performed using Kitano's gastric position classification.

Results: We analyzed 204 infants, of which 99 and 105 were in the TPT and GT groups, respectively. Enteral nutrition (EN) in the TPT and GT groups was 52 ± 39 and 44 ± 41 kcal/kg/day (p = 0.17) at age 14 days (EN14), respectively, and 83 ± 40 and 78 ± 45 kcal/kg/day (p = 0.46) at age 21 days (EN21), respectively. WGV30 (WGV from day 0 to day 30) in the TPT and GT groups was 2.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 3.8 g/kg/day (p = 0.30), respectively, and WGV60 (WGV from day 0 to day 60) was 5.1 ± 2.3 and 6.0 ± 2.5 g/kg/day (p = 0.03), respectively. In infants with Kitano's Grade 2 + 3, EN14 in the TPT and GT groups was 38 ± 35 and 29 ± 35 kcal/kg/day (p = 0.24), respectively, EN21 was 73 ± 40 and 58 ± 45 kcal/kg/day (p = 0.13), respectively, WGV30 was 2.3 ± 3.2 and 2.0 ± 4.3 g/kg/day (p = 0.76), respectively, and WGV60 was 4.6 ± 2.3 and 5.2 ± 2.3 g/kg/day (p = 0.30), respectively.

Conclusion: Intraoperative TPT insertion did not improve nutritional intake and WGV30. WGV60 in TPT was less than that in GT. In Grade 2 + 3 subgroup analysis, TPT also had no advantage. We could not recommend routine TPT insertion at surgery.

Level of evidence: III.

Keywords: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Gastric tube; Transpyloric tube; Weight growth velocity.

MeSH terms

  • East Asian People
  • Enteral Nutrition* / instrumentation
  • Enteral Nutrition* / methods
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux* / etiology
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital* / complications
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intraoperative Period
  • Intubation, Gastrointestinal* / instrumentation
  • Intubation, Gastrointestinal* / methods
  • Pylorus / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies