Internal and Environmental Predictors of Physician Practice Use of Screening and Medications for Opioid Use Disorders

Med Care Res Rev. 2023 Aug;80(4):410-422. doi: 10.1177/10775587231162681. Epub 2023 Apr 10.


Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) remain highly inaccessible despite demonstrated effectiveness. We examine the extent of screening for opioid use and availability of MOUD in a national cross-section of multi-physician primary care and multispecialty practices. Drawing on an existing framework to characterize the internal and environmental context, we assess socio-technical, organizational-managerial, market-based, and state-regulation factors associated with the use of opioid screening and offering of MOUD in a practice. A total of 26.2% of practices offered MOUD, while 69.4% of practices screened for opioid use. Having advanced health information technology functionality was positively associated with both screening for opioid use and offering MOUD in a practice, while access to on-site behavioral clinicians was positively associated with offering MOUD in adjusted models. These results suggest that improving access to information and expertise may enable physician practices to respond more effectively to the nation's ongoing opioid epidemic.

Keywords: buprenorphine; diffusion of innovations; evidence-based practices; opioid treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use
  • Buprenorphine*
  • Humans
  • Opiate Substitution Treatment
  • Opioid-Related Disorders* / drug therapy
  • Physicians*


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Buprenorphine