HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Use on a Global Scale Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2023 Apr;37(4):159-191. doi: 10.1089/apc.2022.0198.


Knowledge of the proportion of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the specific gaps in PrEP use can stimulate enhanced focus on HIV prevention policies and programs. To summarize the proportion of PrEP use and explore the temporal trend in the proportion of PrEP use and factors associated with PrEP use among MSM on a global scale, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, and APA PsycINFO for studies reporting on the use of HIV PrEP among MSM before April 2022. Freeman-Tukey double arc-sine transformation and random-effects models were used to pool estimates. A total of 147 articles involving 395,218 MSM were included. The pooled proportions of PrEP use among MSM and PrEP-eligible MSM were 11.23% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.71-12.84] and 16.04% (95% CI: 11.99-23.36), respectively. The proportion of PrEP use varied among countries with different support policies. β regressions with the logit link showed that the proportion of PrEP use has increased in recent years. Interrupted time series analyses further supported that the approval of PrEP use would decrease the number of new HIV diagnoses among MSM. The main factors associated with PrEP use include health insurance, having a regular medical provider, prior HIV testing, past use of PrEP or Post-Exposure Prophylaxis, social networks, and stigma. Although the proportion of PrEP use among MSM has remained low, it has increased in recent years. More studies are needed to explore the factors associated with PrEP use, especially for PrEP-eligible MSM in low- and middle-income countries.

Keywords: HIV; men who have sex with men; pre-exposure prophylaxis; trend.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis*
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*