The potential for enhancing brain tumor segmentation with few-shot learning is enormous. While several deep learning networks (DNNs) show promising segmentation results, they all take a substantial amount of training data in order to yield appropriate results. Moreover, a prominent problem for most of these models is to perform well in unseen classes. To overcome these challenges, we propose a one-shot learning model to segment brain tumors on brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) based on a single prototype similarity score. With the use of recently developed few-shot learning techniques, where training and testing are carried out utilizing support and query sets of images, we attempt to acquire a definitive tumor region by focusing on slices containing foreground classes. It is unlike other recent DNNs that employed the entire set of images. The training of this model is carried out in an iterative manner where in each iteration, random slices containing foreground classes of randomly sampled data are selected as the query set, along with a different random slice from the same sample as the support set. In order to differentiate query images from class prototypes, we used a metric learning-based approach based on non-parametric thresholds. We employed the multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation (BraTS) 2021 dataset with 60 training images and 350 testing images. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated using the mean dice score and mean IoU score. The experimental results provided a dice score of 83.42 which was greater than other works in the literature. Additionally, the proposed one-shot segmentation model outperforms the conventional methods in terms of computational time, memory usage, and the number of data.
Keywords: few-shot learning; foreground prototypes; magnetic resonance imaging.