Physical Training Programs for Tactical Populations: Brief Systematic Review

Healthcare (Basel). 2023 Mar 28;11(7):967. doi: 10.3390/healthcare11070967.


This review aims (i) to identify and analyze the physical training programs used for tactical personnel (TP) and (ii) to understand the effects of physical training programs on the health and fitness, and occupational performance of tactical personnel. A literature search used the keywords 'Physical Training Program', 'Police', 'Law Enforcement', and 'Firefighter'. A total of 23 studies out of 11.508 analyzed were included. All studies showed acceptable methodological quality in assessing physical fitness (PF), and training programs' effect sizes (Cohen's d) on PF attributes were calculated. The results showed that physical training programs (duration > four weeks) can improve (medium-to-large effects) (i) measures of physical fitness and (ii) performance in simulations of occupationally specific tasks. This review provides summary information (i) to help select (or adjust) physical training programs for TP and (ii) to clarify the effect of different occupational-specific training interventions on fitness measures and health-related parameters for TP.

Keywords: fitness assessments; health; law enforcement; muscular strength; physical training programs; tactical athletes.

Publication types

  • Review