Regulation of Cardiac Cav1.2 Channels by Calmodulin

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 29;24(7):6409. doi: 10.3390/ijms24076409.


Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels, a type of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel, are ubiquitously expressed, and the predominant Ca2+ channel type, in working cardiac myocytes. Cav1.2 channels are regulated by the direct interactions with calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+-binding protein that causes Ca2+-dependent facilitation (CDF) and inactivation (CDI). Ca2+-free CaM (apoCaM) also contributes to the regulation of Cav1.2 channels. Furthermore, CaM indirectly affects channel activity by activating CaM-dependent enzymes, such as CaM-dependent protein kinase II and calcineurin (a CaM-dependent protein phosphatase). In this article, we review the recent progress in identifying the role of apoCaM in the channel 'rundown' phenomena and related repriming of channels, and CDF, as well as the role of Ca2+/CaM in CDI. In addition, the role of CaM in channel clustering is reviewed.

Keywords: Ca2+ channel; Cav1.2; calmodulin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type* / genetics
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type* / metabolism
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 / metabolism
  • Calmodulin* / metabolism
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism


  • Calmodulin
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
  • Calcium