Gumbel distribution-based technique enables quantitative comparison between streak metal artifacts of multidetector row CT and cone-beam CT: a phantom study

Phys Eng Sci Med. 2023 Jun;46(2):801-812. doi: 10.1007/s13246-023-01252-5. Epub 2023 Apr 13.


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), derived from multidetector row CT (MDCT), has a high spatial resolution and has recently been applied to various organs. One of the severe limitations common to CBCT and MDCT is metal artifacts. In particular, streak metal artifacts (SMAs) between multiple metal materials often hinder diagnosis. However, no studies have quantitatively compared the strength of SMAs in MDCT and CBCT. Nomura et al. reported an evaluation method specialized in SMAs of CBCT using the Gumbel distribution (GD), which can also be applied to SMAs of MDCT (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 131: 494-502, 2021, ). This study aimed to quantitatively compare SMAs occurring between titanium materials on MDCT and CBCT images using the GD-based method. The SMAs were investigated as follows: A hydroxyapatite block was sandwiched between two titanium rods to generate an SMA. They were placed in an acrylic phantom, simulating a human head, and scanned using an MDCT scanner and two CBCT scanners. The obtained images were analyzed using Gumbel plots and location parameters, and the SMA strength was calculated. The results showed that the SMAs on the MDCT images were significantly weaker than those on the CBCT images. In the CBCT scans, a smaller volume CT dose index value caused stronger SMAs. These results indicate that MDCT is more advantageous than CBCT in terms of SMA reduction when bone morphology between titanium materials must be evaluated. The characteristic should be considered in clinical cases.

Keywords: CBCT; CT; Gumbel distribution; MDCT; Metal artifact.

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts*
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods
  • Humans
  • Multidetector Computed Tomography / methods
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Titanium*


  • Titanium