The (dis)engagement of mangrove forests and mangrove rice in academic and non-academic literature on Guinea-Bissau-a systematic review protocol

PLoS One. 2023 Apr 13;18(4):e0284266. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0284266. eCollection 2023.


Background: Coastal areas in Guinea-Bissau and elsewhere in West Africa are bordered by mangrove forests. In several of these places, swaths of mangrove forest have been removed and the landscape has been technologically adapted for the production of mangrove rice-a regionally important staple. However, the effects of global warming, in particular sea-level rise, pose challenges to these socioecological environments. In this context, knowledge appears as an important resource and knowing what knowledge has been produced and which perspectives have guided that production may inform future responses to climate change. We have developed a systematic literature review protocol focusing on the main question: "How have mangrove forest and mangrove rice spaces been represented in the literature on Guinea-Bissau?" The main hypothesis is that although they occupy contiguous, interrelated and interactant spaces in coastal environments, mangrove forests and mangrove rice have been studied and analyzed independently in the literature.

Methods: This is a protocol for conducting a systematic review that will include academic and non-academic literature in Portuguese, English and French. The academic literature will be retrieved from both Web of Science and Scopus using Boolean expressions. The non-academic literature will be accessed from relevant institutions, specialized libraries, and reference lists of previously selected items. Data extraction will follow a standard procedure based on an information sheet. Our analysis will be both qualitative (inductive and deductive coding, content analysis) and quantitative (word clouds, descriptive statistics and statistical testing).

Discussion: This systematic review will provide information about the conceptual framework that has been produced through research, policymaking, and conservation and development programs in the management of coastal areas. This study will identify the limitations of previous approaches and contribute to both future research and strategies for planning adaptation to climate change. Finally, the outputs will add to broader debates about people-nature coexistence and climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Africa, Western
  • Ecosystem
  • Forests
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Humans
  • Organizations
  • Oryza*
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic
  • Wetlands*

Grant support

This work is financed by national funds through the FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under the project MARGINS: PTDC/SOC-ANT/0741/2021. JS, APR and RC are individually funded by FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology (CEECIND/04424/2017, SFRH/BD/136188/2018 and Contract-Program DL57/2016/CP1341/CT0001, respectively). The funders had and will not have a role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.