The necessity of disease models for bone/cartilage related disorders is well-recognized, but the barrier between ex-vivo cell culture, animal models and the real human body has been pending for decades. The organoid-on-a-chip technique showed opportunity to revolutionize basic research and drug screening for diseases like osteoporosis and arthritis. The bone/cartilage organoid on-chip (BCoC) system is a novel platform of multi-tissue which faithfully emulate the essential elements, biologic functions and pathophysiological response under real circumstances. In this review, we propose the concept of BCoC platform, summarize the basic modules and current efforts to orchestrate them on a single microfluidic system. Current disease models, unsolved problems and future challenging are also discussed, the aim should be a deeper understanding of diseases, and ultimate realization of generic ex-vivo tools for further therapeutic strategies of pathological conditions.
Keywords: Ex-vivo disease model; On-chip platform; Organoid; Osteochondral unit.
© 2023 The Authors.