Malignancy diseases and kidneys: A nephrologist prospect and updated review

Medicine (Baltimore). 2023 Apr 14;102(15):e33505. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000033505.


Acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic renal failure, and tubular abnormalities represent the kidney disease spectrum of malignancy. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may prevent or reverse these complications. The pathogenesis of AKI in cancer is multifactorial. AKI affects outcomes in cancer, oncological therapy withdrawal, increased hospitalization rate, and hospital stay. Renal function derangement can be recovered with early detection and targeted therapy of cancers. Identifying patients at higher risk of renal damage and implementing preventive measures without sacrificing the benefits of oncological therapy improve survival. Multidisciplinary approaches, such as relieving obstruction, hydration, etc., are required to minimize the kidney injury rate. Different keywords, texts, and phrases were used to search Google, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for related original and review articles that serve the article's aim well. In this nonsystematic article, we aimed to review the published data on cancer-associated kidney complications, their pathogenesis, management, prevention, and the latest updates. Kidney involvement in cancer occurs due to tumor therapy, direct kidney invasion by tumor, or tumor complications. Early diagnosis and therapy improve the survival rate. Pathogenesis of cancer-related kidney involvement is different and complicated. Clinicians' awareness of all the potential causes of cancer-related complications is essential, and a kidney biopsy should be conducted to confirm the kidney pathologies. Chronic kidney disease is a known complication in malignancy and therapies. Hence, avoiding nephrotoxic drugs, dose standardization, and early cancer detection are mandatory measures to prevent renal involvement.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / etiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Kidney / physiology
  • Neoplasms* / complications
  • Nephrologists
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications