Objectives: To evaluate implementation of a video laryngoscope (VL) as a coaching device to reduce adverse tracheal intubation associated events (TIAEs).
Design: Prospective multicenter interventional quality improvement study.
Setting: Ten PICUs in North America.
Patients: Patients undergoing tracheal intubation in the PICU.
Interventions: VLs were implemented as coaching devices with standardized coaching language between 2016 and 2020. Laryngoscopists were encouraged to perform direct laryngoscopy with video images only available in real-time for experienced supervising clinician-coaches.
Measurements and main results: The primary outcome was TIAEs. Secondary outcomes included severe TIAEs, severe hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 80%), and first attempt success. Of 5,060 tracheal intubations, a VL was used in 3,580 (71%). VL use increased from baseline (29.7%) to implementation phase (89.4%; p < 0.001). VL use was associated with lower TIAEs (VL 336/3,580 [9.4%] vs standard laryngoscope [SL] 215/1,480 [14.5%]; absolute difference, 5.1%; 95% CI, 3.1-7.2%; p < 0.001). VL use was associated with lower severe TIAE rate (VL 3.9% vs SL 5.3%; p = 0.024), but not associated with a reduction in severe hypoxemia (VL 15.7% vs SL 16.4%; p = 0.58). VL use was associated with higher first attempt success (VL 71.8% vs SL 66.6%; p < 0.001). In the primary analysis after adjusting for site clustering, VL use was associated with lower adverse TIAEs (odds ratio [OR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.81; p = 0.001). In secondary analyses, VL use was not significantly associated with severe TIAEs (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.44-1.19; p = 0.20), severe hypoxemia (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.25; p = 0.734), or first attempt success (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.98-1.67; p = 0.073). After further controlling for patient and provider characteristics, VL use was independently associated with a lower TIAE rate (adjusted OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49-0.86; p = 0.003).
Conclusions: Implementation of VL-assisted coaching achieved a high level of adherence across the PICUs. VL use was associated with reduced adverse TIAEs.
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