When and How To Perform Active Surveillance for Low-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

Eur Urol Focus. 2023 Jul;9(4):564-566. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2023.03.025. Epub 2023 Apr 12.


Active surveillance (AS) has been proposed as a possible management option for patients with recurrent low-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Recent studies suggest that AS is a safe and effective management strategy. Nevertheless, a consensus statement is needed to standardize inclusion criteria and follow-up schedules.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Neoplasms*
  • Risk
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Watchful Waiting