Effect of probiotic yogurt on gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2023 Apr;17(4):102758. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2023.102758. Epub 2023 Apr 10.


Background and aims: Gestational diabetes mellitus is one of the important complications of pregnancy and is related to many adverse events. There is evidence that probiotics can be considered a preventive and therapeutic option in gestational diabetes mellitus. In this meta-analysis, we have focused on the effect of probiotic yogurt as a natural product on gestational diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A systematic literature search was done through PUBMED/Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO up to December 2022. This meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for the evaluation of the effect of probiotic yogurt on gestational diabetes mellitus.

Results: Four manuscripts with a total of 533 participants were included in this meta-analysis. There was a statistically significant association between probiotic yogurt and reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (Pooled OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.19-0.62; I2 = 0.0%). Furthermore, the mean reduction in the fasting plasma glucose was significantly higher in the probiotic yogurt groups (Hedges' g = -0.37; 95% CI -0.68 to -0.05; I2 = 0.0%).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that probiotic yogurt lowers the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Also, it is related to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose. These findings promise that probiotic yogurt could be regarded as a safe and low-cost therapy and preventive option for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, more randomized controlled trials with different doses and more probiotic strains with varying systems of delivery are warranted.

Keywords: GDM; Gestational diabetes; Gut microbiome; Meta-analysis; Probiotics.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes, Gestational* / prevention & control
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Probiotics* / therapeutic use
  • Yogurt


  • Blood Glucose