Clinical Features and Survival Outcomes in Children and Adolescents With Malignant Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis

J Surg Res. 2023 Aug:288:362-371. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.03.018. Epub 2023 Apr 14.


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to perform a population-based investigation to assess the disease characteristics and prognosis of children and adolescents with malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors (MMGCT).

Methods: Data on the demographics, treatment, and survival outcomes of children and adolescents with MMGCT from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2018 were obtained. To compare survival curves, the log-rank test was employed. The generation of survival curves based on different parameters was done using Kaplan-Meier estimations. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to determine the variables linked to disease-specific survival.

Results: The selection criteria were met by 152 MMGCT patients, 130 of whom were male. Fifty three cases of mixed germ cell tumors (GCTs), 41 cases of malignant teratomas, 26 cases of yolk sac tumors, 14 cases of seminoma, 13 cases of choriocarcinomas, and five cases of embryonal carcinoma were reported. Overall survival at 3 and 5 y for all patients was 63.1% and 61.2%, respectively. Malignant teratoma, yolk sac tumors, and mixed GCTs in children and adolescents had comparable survival rates, while those with choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma showed the worst prognosis. Embryonal carcinoma, malignant teratoma, mixed GCTs, and choriocarcinoma were found as risk factors by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. In contrast, surgery and younger age were protective factors. However, chemotherapy alone showed no survival benefits.

Conclusions: Our population-based evidence showed that MMGCT had worse prognosis in older children and adolescents. Choriocarcinomas and embryonal carcinomas had the worst prognosis. Surgery can prolong survival time. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were not associated with improved prognosis.

Keywords: Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor (MMGCT); Pediatric; SEER database; Survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Carcinoma, Embryonal* / pathology
  • Child
  • Choriocarcinoma*
  • Endodermal Sinus Tumor* / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / epidemiology
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Teratoma* / epidemiology
  • Teratoma* / pathology
  • Teratoma* / therapy
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / pathology