WavBERT: Exploiting Semantic and Non-semantic Speech using Wav2vec and BERT for Dementia Detection

Interspeech. 2021 Aug-Sep:2021:3790-3794. doi: 10.21437/interspeech.2021-332.

Abstract

In this paper, we exploit semantic and non-semantic information from patient's speech data using Wav2vec and Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) for dementia detection. We first propose a basic WavBERT model by extracting semantic information from speech data using Wav2vec, and analyzing the semantic information using BERT for dementia detection. While the basic model discards the non-semantic information, we propose extended WavBERT models that convert the output of Wav2vec to the input to BERT for preserving the non-semantic information in dementia detection. Specifically, we determine the locations and lengths of inter-word pauses using the number of blank tokens from Wav2vec where the threshold for setting the pauses is automatically generated via BERT. We further design a pre-trained embedding conversion network that converts the output embedding of Wav2vec to the input embedding of BERT, enabling the fine-tuning of WavBERT with non-semantic information. Our evaluation results using the ADReSSo dataset showed that the WavBERT models achieved the highest accuracy of 83.1% in the classification task, the lowest Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE) score of 4.44 in the regression task, and a mean F1 of 70.91% in the progression task. We confirmed the effectiveness of WavBERT models exploiting both semantic and non-semantic speech.

Keywords: Speech analysis; automatic speech recognition; dementia detection; non-semantic information.