Pre-Glenn aorto-pulmonary collaterals in single-ventricle patients

Cardiol Young. 2023 Dec;33(12):2589-2596. doi: 10.1017/S1047951123000665. Epub 2023 Apr 17.


Background: In single-ventricle patients undergoing staged-bidirectional Glenn, 36-59% have aorto-pulmonary collateral flow, but risk factors and clinical outcomes are unknown. We hypothesise that shunt type and catheter haemodynamics may predict pre-bidirectional Glenn aorto-pulmonary collateral burden, which may predict death/transplantation, pulmonary artery or aorto-pulmonary collateral intervention.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing a Norwood procedure for single-ventricle anatomy. Covariates included clinical and haemodynamic characteristics up to/including pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation and aorto-pulmonary collateral burden at pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation. Multivariable models used to evaluate relationships between risk factors and outcomes.

Results: From January 2011 to March 2016, 104 patients underwent Norwood intervention. Male sex (odds ratio 3.36, 95% confidence interval 1.17-11.4), age at pre-bidirectional Glenn assessment (2.12, 1.33-3.39 per month), and pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (1.23, 1.08-1.41 per 0.1 unit) were associated with aorto-pulmonary collateral burden. Aorto-pulmonary collateral burden was not associated with death/transplantation (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.37-3.85), pulmonary artery (sub-hazard ratio 1.38, 0.32-2.61), or aorto-pulmonary collateral interventions (sub-hazard ratio 1.11, 0.21-5.76). Longer post-Norwood length of stay was associated with greater risk of death/transplantation (hazard ratio 1.22 per week, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.38), but lower risk of aorto-pulmonary collateral intervention (sub-hazard ratio 0.86 per week, 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.98). Time to pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation was associated with lower risk of pulmonary artery (sub-hazard ratio 0.80 per month, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.98) and aorto-pulmonary collateral intervention (sub-hazard ratio 0.79, 0.63-0.99). Probability of moderate/severe aorto-pulmonary collateral burden increased with left-to-right shunt (22.5% at <1.0, 57.6% at >1.4) and the age at pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation (10.6% at <2 months, 56.9% at >5 months).

Conclusions: Aorto-pulmonary collateral burden is common after Norwood procedure and increases as age at bidirectional Glenn increases. As expected, higher pulmonary to systemic flow ratio is a marker for greater aorto-pulmonary collateral burden pre-bi-directional Glenn; aorto-pulmonary collateral burden does not confer risk of death/transplantation or pulmonary artery intervention.

Keywords: Aorto-pulmonary collaterals; Norwood procedure; bidirectional Glenn; hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Fontan Procedure*
  • Heart Ventricles / surgery
  • Humans
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome* / surgery
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Norwood Procedures*
  • Pulmonary Artery / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Univentricular Heart*