The intestine remaining after resection undergoes a well known compensatory response. Crypts and villi grow in size, and the number of proliferating cells in a crypt increases. The crypt labeling index, however, is unchanged, which is thought to suggest that the growth fraction also remains unchanged and hence that the system is enlarged, but otherwise the new steady-state is similar to that of the controls. It is also generally accepted that no new crypts or villi are added to the adapting bowel. In this study we applied recently developed tools to study the response of the intestinal epithelium as a whole. Thus, the effects of 30% intestinal resection on whole population cell kinetics were determined by using flow cytometry, Coulter particle counting, and simple morphometric techniques. In addition to the classic response, we found an increase in the rate of crypt production, which was due mainly to a shorter crypt replication cycle. Thus, new crypts were produced at a faster rate in the resected animals than in the transected controls. This resulted in an expansion of the crypt cell population in the epithelium following resection. There was a corresponding expansion of the cycling cell population and thus an increase in the growth fraction of the resected epithelium. We conclude that for the crypt population, the classic story is correct with the exception that new crypts are added to the epithelium after resection. However, for the epithelium as a whole, the classic story is misleading as there appears to be an increase in the growth fraction of the epithelium after intestinal resection.