Progress in acute myeloid leukaemia treatment is occurring at an unprecedented pace. The past decade has witnessed an increasingly improved scientific understanding of the underlying biology of acute myeloid leukaemia, leading to enhanced prognostication tools and refined risk assessments, and most especially incorporating measurable residual disease (MRD) into longitudinal risk assessments. The classification of acute myeloid leukaemia has recently been updated by WHO and the International Consensus Classification (ICC). Recommendations for prognostic stratification, response assessment, and MRD determination have also been updated by the European LeukemiaNet. Treatment options have evolved substantially in the last 5 years for patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia, leading to improved outcomes in intensively treated patients and those more appropriate for non-intensive chemotherapy. More effective targeted treatment options in the relapsed setting are also available, further advancing the treatment armamentarium and improving patient outcomes.
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