Epithelioma Cuniculatum (Plantar Verrucous Carcinoma): A Systematic Review of Treatment Options

Cutis. 2023 Feb;111(2):E19-E24. doi: 10.12788/cutis.0720.


Epithelioma cuniculatum (EC) is a subtype of verrucous carcinoma (VC) that affects the feet. Treatment involves complete tumor removal by wide local excision (WLE) or Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Extensive local destruction may require amputation. We sought to compare reported treatment methods for EC and determine their efficacy by assessing for tumor recurrence and treatment-associated complications. A systematic review of the literature spanning multiple databases was performed. To date, surgical excision is recommended as the standard of care for treatment of EC, with amputation considered in more advanced cases. Mohs micrographic surgery appears to be a promising treatment modality for EC and may have lower recurrence rates than WLE but requires further investigation.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Amputation, Surgical
  • Carcinoma, Verrucous* / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Verrucous* / therapy
  • Female
  • Foot Diseases* / surgery
  • Foot Diseases* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mohs Surgery
  • Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult