In this review, the Basic and Translational Science Assembly of the European Respiratory Society provides an overview of the 2022 International Congress highlights. We discuss the consequences of respiratory events from birth until old age regarding climate change related alterations in air quality due to pollution caused by increased ozone, pollen, wildfires and fuel combustion as well as the increasing presence of microplastic and microfibres. Early life events such as the effect of hyperoxia in the context of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and crucial effects of the intrauterine environment in the context of pre-eclampsia were discussed. The Human Lung Cell Atlas (HLCA) was put forward as a new point of reference for healthy human lungs. The combination of single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial data in the HLCA has enabled the discovery of new cell types/states and niches, and served as a platform that facilitates further investigation of mechanistic perturbations. The role of cell death modalities in regulating the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases and its potential as a therapeutic target was also discussed. Translational studies identified novel therapeutic targets and immunoregulatory mechanisms in asthma. Lastly, it was highlighted that the choice of regenerative therapy depends on disease severity, ranging from transplantation to cell therapies and regenerative pharmacology.
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