Background: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations or a complex karyotype have a poor prognosis, and hypomethylating agents are often used. The authors evaluated the efficacy of entospletinib, an oral inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase, combined with decitabine in this patient population.
Methods: This was a multicenter, open-label, phase 2 substudy of the Beat AML Master Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03013998) using a Simon two-stage design. Eligible patients aged 60 years or older who had newly diagnosed AML with mutations in TP53 with or without a complex karyotype (cohort A; n = 45) or had a complex karyotype without TP53 mutation (cohort B; n = 13) received entospletinib 400 mg twice daily with decitabine 20 mg/m2 on days 1-10 every 28 days for up to three induction cycles, followed by up to 11 consolidation cycles, in which decitabine was reduced to days 1-5. Entospletinib maintenance was given for up to 2 years. The primary end point was complete remission (CR) and CR with hematologic improvement by up to six cycles of therapy.
Results: The composite CR rates for cohorts A and B were 13.3% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%-26.8%) and 30.8% (95% confidence interval, 9.1%-61.4%), respectively. The median duration of response was 7.6 and 8.2 months, respectively, and the median overall survival was 6.5 and 11.5 months, respectively. The study was stopped because the futility boundary was crossed in both cohorts.
Conclusions: The combination of entospletinib and decitabine demonstrated activity and was acceptably tolerated in this patient population; however, the CR rates were low, and overall survival was short. Novel treatment strategies for older patients with TP53 mutations and complex karyotype remain an urgent need.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; decitabine; entospletinib; hypomethylating agents; tumor protein p53 (TP53).
© 2023 American Cancer Society.