Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence the uptake of cadmium in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

Chemosphere. 2023 Jul:330:138728. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138728. Epub 2023 Apr 18.


Phytoremediation is currently a more environmentally friendly and economical measure for the remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil. Heavy metal-resistant plant species, Cannabis sativa L. was inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis to investigate the mechanisms of mycorrhizal in improving the Cd remediation ability of C. sativa. The results showed that after inoculation with R. irregularis, C. sativa root Cd contents increased significantly, and leaf Cd enrichment decreased significantly. At the transcriptional level, R. irregularis down-regulated the expression of the ABC transporter family but up-regulated differentially expressed genes regulating low molecular weight organic acids. The levels of malic acid, citric acid, and lactic acid were significantly increased in the rhizosphere soil, and they were significantly and strongly related to oxidizable Cd concentrations. Then citric acid levels were considerably and positively connected to exchangeable Cd concentrations. Our findings revealed that through regulating the movement of root molecules, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhanced the heavy metal tolerance of C. sativa even more, meanwhile, they changed the Cd chemical forms by altering the composition of low molecular weight organic acids, which in turn affected soil Cd bioavailability.

Keywords: ABC transporter; Heavy metal; Industrial crops; Phytoremediation; Rhizophagus irregularis.

MeSH terms

  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Cadmium / metabolism
  • Cannabis* / genetics
  • Cannabis* / metabolism
  • Glomeromycota* / metabolism
  • Metals, Heavy* / metabolism
  • Mycorrhizae* / metabolism
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants* / metabolism


  • Cadmium
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Soil