Alternative donor BMT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide as initial therapy for acquired severe aplastic anemia

Blood. 2023 Jun 22;141(25):3031-3038. doi: 10.1182/blood.2023020435.


Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a marrow failure disorder with high morbidity and mortality. It is treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for those with fully matched donors, or immunosuppressive therapy (IST) for those who lack such a donor, which is often the case for underrepresented minorities. We conducted a prospective phase 2 trial of reduced-intensity conditioning HLA-haploidentical BMT and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host (GVHD) prophylaxis as initial therapy for patients with SAA. The median patient age was 25 years (range, 3-63 years), and the median follow-up time was 40.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.4-55.7). More than 35% of enrollment was from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. The cumulative incidence of grade 2 or 4 acute GVHD on day 100 was 7% (95% CI, not applicable [NA]-17), and chronic GVHD at 2 years was 4% (95% CI, NA-11). The overall survival of 27 patients was 92% (95% CI, 83-100) at 1, 2, and 3 years. The first 7 patients received lower dose total body irradiation (200 vs 400 cGy), but these patients were more likely to have graft failure (3 of 7) compared with 0 of 20 patients in the higher dose group (P = .01; Fisher exact test). HLA-haploidentical BMT with PTCy using 400 cGy total body irradiation resulted in 100% overall survival with minimal GVHD in 20 consecutive patients. Not only does this approach avoid any adverse ramifications of IST and its low failure-free survival, but the use of haploidentical donors also expands access to BMT across all populations. This trial was registered at as NCT02833805.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anemia, Aplastic*
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use
  • Graft vs Host Disease* / etiology
  • Graft vs Host Disease* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult


  • Cyclophosphamide

Associated data