EASL-ILCA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

J Hepatol. 2023 Jul;79(1):181-208. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2023.03.010. Epub 2023 Apr 20.


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) develops inside the liver, between bile ductules and the second-order bile ducts. It is the second most frequent primary liver cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma, and its global incidence is increasing. It is associated with an alarming mortality rate owing to its silent presentation (often leading to late diagnosis), highly aggressive nature and resistance to treatment. Early diagnosis, molecular characterisation, accurate staging and personalised multidisciplinary treatments represent current challenges for researchers and physicians. Unfortunately, these challenges are beset by the high heterogeneity of iCCA at the clinical, genomic, epigenetic and molecular levels, very often precluding successful management. Nonetheless, in the last few years, progress has been made in molecular characterisation, surgical management, and targeted therapy. Recent advances together with the awareness that iCCA represents a distinct entity amongst the CCA family, led the ILCA and EASL governing boards to commission international experts to draft dedicated evidence-based guidelines for physicians involved in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic management of iCCA.

Keywords: diagnosis; intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; management; risk factors; staging; targeted therapy.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Bile Duct Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / complications
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / therapy
  • Cholangiocarcinoma* / diagnosis
  • Cholangiocarcinoma* / genetics
  • Cholangiocarcinoma* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms* / complications
  • Liver Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Liver Neoplasms* / therapy