Introduction: The assessment of the ventricular myocardial substrate critically depends on the size of mapping electrodes, their orientation with respect to wavefront propagation, and interelectrode distance. We conducted a dual-center study to evaluate the impact of microelectrode mapping in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT).
Methods: We included 21 consecutive patients (median age, 68 , 95% male) with structural heart disease undergoing CA for electrical storm (n = 14) or recurrent VT (n = 7) using the QDOT Micro catheter and a multipolar catheter (PentaRay, n = 9). The associations of peak-to-peak maximum standard bipolar (BVc ) and minibipolar (PentaRay, BVp ) with microbipolar (BVμMax ) voltages were respectively tested in sinus rhythm with mixed effect models. Furthermore, we compared the features of standard bipolar (BE) and microbipolar (μBE) electrograms in sinus rhythm at sites of termination with radiofrequency energy.
Results: BVμMax was moderately associated with both BVc (β = .85, p < .01) and BVp (β = .56, p < .01). BVμMax was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.04, p < .01) mV larger than corresponding BVc , and 0.27 (95% CI: 0.16-0.37, p < .01) mV larger than matching BVp in sinus rhythm, with higher percentage differences in low voltage regions, leading to smaller endocardial dense scar (2.3 [2.7] vs. 12.1  cm2 , p < .01) and border zone (3.2 [7.4] vs. 4.8 [20.1] cm2 , p = .03) regions in microbipolar maps compared to standard bipolar maps. Late potentials areas were nonsignificantly greater in microelectrode maps, compared to standard electrode maps. At sites of VT termination (n = 14), μBE were of higher amplitude (0.9 [0.8] vs. 0.4 [0.2] mV, p < .01), longer duration (117  vs. 74  ms, p < .01), and with greater number of peaks (4  vs. 2 , p < .01) in sinus rhythm compared to BE.
Conclusion: microelectrode mapping is more sensitive than standard bipolar mapping in the identification of viable myocytes in SR, and may facilitate recognition of targets for CA.
Keywords: activation mapping; electroanatomical mapping; radiofrequency ablation; substrate mapping; ventricular tachycardia.
© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.