Pharmacodynamic Material Basis and Potential Mechanism Study of Spatholobi Caulis in Reversing Osteoporosis

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2023 Apr 14:2023:3071147. doi: 10.1155/2023/3071147. eCollection 2023.

Abstract

Objective: To elucidate the mechanism of Spatholobi Caulis (SC) in treating osteoporosis (OP) integrated zebrafish model and bioinformatics.

Methods: Skeleton staining coupled with image quantification was performed to evaluate the effects of SC on skeleton mineralization area (SSA) and total optical density (TOD). Zebrafish locomotor activity was monitored using the EthoVision XT. Bioactive compounds of SC and their corresponding protein targets were acquired from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database. Potential therapeutic targets for OP were summarized through retrieving 5 databases, and then, the overlapping genes between SC and OP were acquired. The core genes were selected by CytoHubba. Subsequently, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis of the intersection target genes were carried out by R software. Finally, the molecular docking simulation was manipulated between the ingredients and the hub genes.

Results: Compared with the model group, SC significantly increased the SSA and TOD at 10 mg/mL and improved the locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). 33 components of SC were associated with 72 OP-related genes including 10 core genes (MAPK1, VEGFA, MMP9, AKT1, AR, IL6, CALM3, TP53, EGFR, and CAT). Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Receptor for AGE (RAGE) signaling pathway was screened out as the principal pathway of SC in anti-OP. The bioactive components (Aloe-emodin, Emodin, Formononetin, Licochalcone A, Luteolin, and Lopac-I-3766) have excellent affinity to core genes (MAPK1, VEGFA, MMP9, AKT1, and IL6).

Conclusion: SC had the hierarchical network characteristics of "multicomponents/multitargets/multifunctions/multipathways" in reversing OP, but AGE-RAGE signaling pathway may be the main regulatory mechanism.