Bladder blood clots represent an infrequent urinary condition in children. They usually result from hematuria with many underlying causes, such as urinary tract infections and urethral/bladder traumas. Treatment options for clot removal include trans-urethral or suprapubic bladder irrigation and, if unsuccessful, endoscopic management under general anesthesia with a resectoscope. In younger male children, however, the repeated passage of a trans-urethral resectoscope may be challenging and traumatic, due to the small lumen diameter. Eventually, an open surgical approach can be required in many patients. Few anecdotal non-surgical approaches have been proposed for the management of bladder blood clots in children. This review aims to summarize the conservative techniques described in the literature with the instillation of intravesical agents, analyzing the different strategies and their advantages.
Keywords: bladder clots; bladder instillation; blood clots; children; endocavitary; intravesical agents; pediatric urology.