Clinico-topographic evaluation of anterior versus posterior acute ischemic stroke and correlation with early mortality-based scale prediction

eNeurologicalSci. 2023 Apr 1:31:100458. doi: 10.1016/j.ensci.2023.100458. eCollection 2023 Jun.

Abstract

Objective: Posterior circulation ischaemic strokes (PCIs) are a clinical syndrome associated with ischemia related to stenosis, in situ thrombosis, or embolic occlusion of the posterior circulation and differ from anterior circulation ischaemic strokes (ACIs) in many aspects. In this study, ACIs and PCIs were evaluated in terms of clinico-radiological and demographic aspects, and the relevance of objective scales to early disability and mortality was investigated.

Methods: The definition of ACIS or PCIS was classified according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP). There are mainly two groups divided into ACIs and PCIs. ACIs were included as total anterior circulation syndrome (TACS), partial anterior circulation syndrome (PACS) (right and left), and lacunar syndrome (LACS) (right and left), and PCIs were posterior circulation syndrome (POCS) (right and left). Arrival NIH Stroke Scale/Score (NIHSS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were evaluated in clinical assessment and modified SOAR Score for Stroke (mSOAR) was for early mortality-based scale prediction. All data were compared, and mean, IQR (if applicable) values and ROC curve analysis were determined.

Results: A total of 100 AIS patients, 50 of whom were ACIs and 50 were PCIs, were included in the study and were evaluated within the first 24 h. Hypertension was the most common disease for both groups. The second most common was hyperlipidemia (82%) in the ACIs and diabetes mellitus (40%) in the PCIs. The frequency of right hemisphere ischemia was higher in ACIs (63.6%) and PCIs (48%). The mean NIHSS and GCS score (also median IQR) was higher in the right ACIs and the highest NIHSS mean was in the right partial anterior circulation syndrome (PACS) (respectively median (IQR): 9.5 (13) and median (IQR):14.5 (3)). The mean NIHSS and GCS score of bilateral posterior circulation syndrome (POCS) were the highest in PCIs (median (IQR):3 (17), (IQR):15 (4) respectively). The mSOAR mean was the highest in the right PACS in ACIs (median (IQR):2.5 (2)) and in bilateral POCs among PCIs (median(IQR):2(2)).

Conclusion: The association of PCIs with hyperlipidemia and the male gender was interpreted, and anterior infarcts were found to cause higher early clinical disability scores. The NIHSS scale was effective and reliable, especially in anterior acute strokes, but also emphasized the necessity of using the GCS assessment together in the first 24 h in the assessment of PCIs. mSOAR scale is a helpful predictor in estimating early mortality not only in ACIs but also in PCIs, similar to GCS.

Keywords: Early mortality-based scale prediction; Glascow coma scale; Modified SOAR score for stroke; NIH stroke scale; Posterior circulation brain infarction; Topographic imaging.