Agreement between Electrical Cardiometry and Pulmonary Artery Thermodilution for Measuring Cardiac Output in Isoflurane-Anesthetized Dogs

Animals (Basel). 2023 Apr 21;13(8):1420. doi: 10.3390/ani13081420.


In animals, invasive pulmonary artery thermodilution (PATD) is a gold standard for cardiac output (CO) monitoring, but it is impractical in clinical settings. This study evaluates the agreement between PATD and noninvasive electrical cardiometry (EC) for measuring CO and analyzes the other EC-derived hemodynamic variables in six healthy anesthetized dogs subjected to four different hemodynamic events in a sequential order: (1) euvolemia (baseline); (2) hemorrhage (33% blood volume loss); (3) autologous blood transfusion; and (4) 20 mL/kg colloid bolus. The CO measurements obtained using PATD and EC are compared using Bland-Altman analysis, Lin's concordance correlation (LCC), and polar plot analysis. Values of p < 0.05 are considered significant. The EC measurements consistently underpredict the CO values as compared with PATD, and the LCC is 0.65. The EC's performance is better during hemorrhage, thus indicating its capability in detecting absolute hypovolemia in clinical settings. Even though the percentage error exhibited by EC is 49.4%, which is higher than the standard (<30%), EC displays a good trending ability. Additionally, the EC-derived variables display a significant correlation with the CO measured using PATD. Noninvasive EC may have a potential in monitoring trends in hemodynamics in clinical settings.

Keywords: anesthesia; blood transfusion; canine; colloids; electrical velocimetry; hemodynamics; hemorrhage; hypovolemia; monitoring; noninvasive.