The Inhibitory Effects of Hydroxytyrosol, α-Tocopherol and Ascorbyl Palmitate on Lipid Peroxidation in Deep-Fat Fried Seafood

Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Apr 14;12(4):929. doi: 10.3390/antiox12040929.


This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of hydroxytyrosol, α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate on lipid peroxidation in squid, hoki and prawn during deep-fat frying and refrigerated storage. Fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the seafood had a high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFAs) content, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The total content of n-3 fatty acids in their lipids was 46% (squid), 36% (hoki) and 33% (prawn), although they all had low lipid contents. The oxidation stability test results showed that deep-fat frying significantly increased the peroxide value (POV), p-anisidine value (p-AV) and the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in squid, hoki and prawn lipids. Meanwhile, antioxidants delayed the lipid oxidation in fried seafood and sunflower oil (SFO) used for frying, albeit in different ways. The least effective of all the antioxidants was α-tocopherol, as the POV, p-AV and TBARS values obtained with this antioxidant were significantly higher. Ascorbyl palmitate was better than α-tocopherol but was not as effective as hydroxytyrosol in suppressing lipid oxidation in the frying medium (SFO) and in the seafood. However, unlike the ascorbyl palmitate-treated oil, hydroxytyrosol-treated oil could not be used for multiple deep-fat frying of seafood. Hydroxytyrosol appeared to be absorbed in the seafood during multiple frying, thus leaving a low concentration in the SFO and making it susceptible to oxidation.

Keywords: ascorbyl palmitate; deep-fat frying; hoki; hydroxytyrosol; oxidation; prawn; squid; sunflower oil; tocopherol.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.