Nanoparticle-Based Interventions for Liver Transplantation

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Apr 19;24(8):7496. doi: 10.3390/ijms24087496.


Liver transplantation is the only treatment for hepatic insufficiency as a result of acute and chronic liver injuries/pathologies that fail to recover. Unfortunately, there remains an enormous and growing gap between organ supply and demand. Although recipients on the liver transplantation waitlist have significantly higher mortality, livers are often not allocated because they are (i) classified as extended criteria or marginal livers and (ii) subjected to longer cold preservation time (>6 h) with a direct correlation of poor outcomes with longer cold ischemia. Downregulating the recipient's innate immune response to successfully tolerate a graft having longer cold ischemia times or ischemia-reperfusion injury through induction of immune tolerance in the graft and the host would significantly improve organ utilization and post-transplant outcomes. Broadly, technologies proposed for development aim to extend the life of the transplanted liver through post-transplant or recipient conditioning. In this review, we focus on the potential benefits of nanotechnology to provide unique pre-transplant grafting and recipient conditioning of extended criteria donor livers using immune tolerance induction and hyperthermic pre-conditioning.

Keywords: hyperthermia; liver transplant; nanoparticles; tolerance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Liver
  • Liver Failure*
  • Liver Transplantation*
  • Organ Preservation
  • Reperfusion Injury* / therapy
  • Tissue Donors