Clinical Uses of Inhaled Antifungals for Invasive Pulmonary Fungal Disease: Promises and Challenges

J Fungi (Basel). 2023 Apr 12;9(4):464. doi: 10.3390/jof9040464.


The role of inhaled antifungals for prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal pneumonias remains undefined. Herein we summarize recent clinically relevant literature in high-risk groups such as neutropenic hematology patients, including those undergoing stem cell transplant, lung and other solid transplant recipients, and those with sequential mold lung infections secondary to viral pneumonias. Although there are several limitations of the available data, inhaled liposomal amphotericin B administered 12.5 mg twice weekly could be an alternative method of prophylaxis in neutropenic populations at high risk for invasive fungal pneumonia where systemic triazoles are not tolerated. In addition, inhaled amphotericin B has been commonly used as prophylaxis, pre-emptive, or targeted therapy for lung transplant recipients but is considered as a secondary alternative for other solid organ transplant recipients. Inhaled amphotericin B seems promising as prophylaxis in fungal pneumonias secondary to viral pneumonias, influenza, and SARS CoV-2. Data remain limited for inhaled amphotericin for adjunct treatment, but the utility is feasible.

Keywords: amphotericin B; antifungal; aspergillosis; fungal pneumonia; inhaled.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.