In Vitro Preventive Effect and Mechanism of Action of Weissella cibaria CMU against Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Periodontal Pathogens

Microorganisms. 2023 Apr 7;11(4):962. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms11040962.


In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-biofilm, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activity of Weissella cibaria CMU (CMU), an oral probiotic, against periodontopathogens. Compared to other oral probiotics, CMU showed a superior inhibitory effect on the biofilm formation and growth of Streptococcus mutans on orthodontic wires and artificial teeth (p < 0.05). CMU exerted potent antibacterial effects against S. mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis according to a line test. In human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) stimulated by P. gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Prevotella intermedia, CMU suppressed the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α] in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). CMU restored the production of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 following its inhibition by P. gingivalis, and it suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -3 induced by periodontopathogens (p < 0.05). Moreover, CMU needed direct contact with HGFs to exert their anti-inflammatory function, indicating that they act directly on gingival cells to modulate local inflammation. Our preclinical study provides evidence for the potential benefits of topical CMU treatments in preventing the development of caries and periodontitis caused by the dysbiosis of the dental plaque microbiome.

Keywords: Streptococcus mutans; Weissella cibaria CMU; biofilm; gene expression; human gingival fibroblast; metalloproteinase; periodontopathogen; pro-inflammatory cytokine; probiotics.